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Research 101

In this guide, you’ll learn about the steps in the research process including how to develop a research question, identify keywords, find, evaluate, and cite information sources and more.

About In-text citations

In MLA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the Works Cited list at the end of the paper.

Type of Citation

In-Text Parenthetical Format

1 work by 1 author

(Harris 23)

1 work by 2 authors

(Harris and Ramirez 23)

1 work by 3 or more authors

(Peet et al.198)

Corporate author

(American Dental Association 42)

Unknown author (use the title)

("A New Deal" 121)


Chart courtesy of Indian River State College, 2020

Am I plagiarizing Infographic


Quoting Directly

When you quote directly from a source, enclose the quoted section in quotation marks. Add an in-text citation at the end of the quote with the author name and page number, like this:

"Here's a direct quote" (Smith 8).

"Here's a direct quote" ("Trouble" 22).


When you write information or ideas from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion, like this:

​This is a paraphrase (Smith 8).

This is a paraphrase ("Trouble" 22).